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Scientific consensus plays a crucial role in public life. In the face of increasing science denialism, scientists are under pressure to present themselves as a united front to combat misinformation and conspiracy theories. However, the drive for consensus also has negative epistemic consequences, such as masking expert disagreement and obscuring va...

Values in ScienceSymposium

Current institutional structures for ethics in science focus on oversight—gatekeeping or regulatory compliance. These structures ensure scientists make the ethical decisions deemed appropriate and sanction scientists who do not, and are viewed as external to the research agendas scientists choose to pursue, and as impediments to research that mus...

Values in ScienceSymposium

In the mid-twentieth century, as mainstream scientific opinion turned away from eugenics and the most explicit versions of race science, two organizations were formed to preserve and continue research in defense of white supremacy. The Pioneer Fund has supported and the journal Mankind Quarterly has published the work of researchers such as Hans Ey...

Values in ScienceSymposium

This presentation explores the relationship between values in scientific and technological research, on the one hand, and features of the organizations that conduct that research, on the other. Organizational features to be highlighted include organizational aims and strategies, organizational structure, and organizational culture; case illustratio...

Values in ScienceSymposium

Efforts to rationalize racial injustice and colonialism by appealing to the epistemic authority of science — race science — have waxed and waned over the last several decades. Even when it is regarded as discredited or pseudoscientific, race science has been actively maintained on the fringes of mainstream scientific communities, and practition...

Values in ScienceSymposium

Most previous scholarship on the topic of values in science has focused on individuals. The time is now ripe to study how values permeate science through institutional systems. In order to move this scholarship forward, the present paper develops a taxonomy of major ways in which institutional systems can shape the influences of values on scientifi...

Values in ScienceSymposium

Philosophers of science and scholars in science and technology studies have recently focused their attention on civic participation in research processes, commonly described as ``citizen/participatory science'' (Irwin 1995, Curtis 2018). This paper provides evidence from an exemplary case of such participation in applied fields of science and analy...

Values in ScienceContributed Papers

Values in SciencePoster

Science policyPoster

In this paper we examine “gain of function” (GOF) research in virology, which results in a virus that is substantially more virulent or transmissible than its wild antecedent. We examine the typical animal model, the ferret, arguing that it does not easily satisfy potential desiderata for an animal model. We then discuss how these epistemic lim...

Values in ScienceContributed Papers

Acknowledging that scientific research today is mainly conducted in the private sphere with commercial interests (or values) in mind, becomes crucial for understanding the roles of values in science today, as well as to imagining ways of counteracting some of the undesirable influence of such values. In the contribution to this symposium, I continu...

Values in ScienceSymposium

Race science recruits scientific work in the biological, behavioral, and social sciences in the service of legitimating the presupposition that there are biological races which map on to social racial systems. But the biological structure of human populations is not synonymous with particular racial social order. Racial science is not science about...

Values in ScienceSymposium

Commentary

PSA2022272

This talk will provide commentary from the perspective of political philosophy about the other papers in the session. In particular, I will apply insights from democratic theory about the nature of representation and its corresponding responsibilities, the epistemic and moral value of deliberation, and the benefits of institutional design aimed at ...

Values in ScienceSymposium

Parts of the politically conservative block in the United States have a long history of “science denialism”. As a means to explore the nature of the New Demarcation Problem (Holman and Wilholt, 2022) and its relation to the original Popperian demarcation problem this paper considers an example of each. The first is the movement to undermine the...

Values in ScienceSymposium

This paper shows how institutional values influence the design and evaluation of arguments in funding proposals for scientific research. We characterize a general argument made within proposals and several kinds of subarguments that contribute to it. We indicate that funders’ values inform the kinds of proposal documents funders require and their...

Values in ScienceContributed Papers

We have previously argued that masking, censoring, or ignoring scientific dissent can be detrimental for several ethical and epistemic reasons, even when such dissent is considered to be normatively inappropriate (de Melo-Martín and Intemann 2018). Masking dissent can be inappropriately paternalistic, undermine trust in experts, and make effective...

Values in ScienceSymposium

Directly after the release of Nicholas Wade’s *A Troublesome Inheritance*, population geneticists, biologists, and biomedical researchers wrote an open letter to the *New York Times* stating that “We reject Wade’s implication that our findings substantiate his guesswork." Given their clear denunciation of Wade's book, it seems that the furor ...

Values in ScienceSymposium

The general consensus amongst philosophers is that values play an integral role in scientific inquiry. This requires a reorientation towards delineating legitimate from illegitimate values in science, or the new demarcation problem. Although it has been argued that alternatives to the value-free ideal (VFI) for science should at least serve the sam...

Values in ScienceSymposium