Sterlings 2
Nov 12, 2022 09:00 AM - 11:45 AM(America/New_York)
20221112T0900 20221112T1145 America/New_York Values and Scientific Institutions

Scholarship on values in science has exploded in recent years. Nevertheless, with the exception of some work on topics like patent policies, funding structures, and corporate influences on science, most scholarship on science and values has focused on the influences of values on individual scientists. The time is now ripe for philosophers of science to turn greater attention to the ways that institutional structures shape values in science. This symposium approaches the topic of values in scientific institutions from four different angles. First, it provides an overview of the variety of different ways in which institutions can influence values in science. Second, it explores how organizations can influence the values embedded in scientific research through their aims, structure, and culture. Third, it considers the kinds of institutions that are best suited to fostering and supporting ethical research. Fourth, it examines the ways in which many different kinds of institutions (e.g., funding, regulatory, political, and academic) all tend to promote private, commercial interests in scientific research. Together with a commentary provided from the perspective of political philosophy, the papers in this symposium provide a roadmap for future efforts to broaden the literature on values in science to encompass the institutional level.

Sterlings 2 PSA 2022 office@philsci.org

Scholarship on values in science has exploded in recent years. Nevertheless, with the exception of some work on topics like patent policies, funding structures, and corporate influences on science, most scholarship on science and values has focused on the influences of values on individual scientists. The time is now ripe for philosophers of science to turn greater attention to the ways that institutional structures shape values in science. This symposium approaches the topic of values in scientific institutions from four different angles. First, it provides an overview of the variety of different ways in which institutions can influence values in science. Second, it explores how organizations can influence the values embedded in scientific research through their aims, structure, and culture. Third, it considers the kinds of institutions that are best suited to fostering and supporting ethical research. Fourth, it examines the ways in which many different kinds of institutions (e.g., funding, regulatory, political, and academic) all tend to promote private, commercial interests in scientific research. Together with a commentary provided from the perspective of political philosophy, the papers in this symposium provide a roadmap for future efforts to broaden the literature on values in science to encompass the institutional level.

CommentaryView Abstract
Symposium 09:00 AM - 11:45 AM (America/New_York) 2022/11/12 14:00:00 UTC - 2022/11/12 16:45:00 UTC
This talk will provide commentary from the perspective of political philosophy about the other papers in the session. In particular, I will apply insights from democratic theory about the nature of representation and its corresponding responsibilities, the epistemic and moral value of deliberation, and the benefits of institutional design aimed at safeguarding freedom from domination.
Presenters
EM
Eduardo Martinez
University Of Cincinnati
Organizations and Values in Science and TechnologyView Abstract
Symposium 09:00 AM - 11:45 AM (America/New_York) 2022/11/12 14:00:00 UTC - 2022/11/12 16:45:00 UTC
This presentation explores the relationship between values in scientific and technological research, on the one hand, and features of the organizations that conduct that research, on the other. Organizational features to be highlighted include organizational aims and strategies, organizational structure, and organizational culture; case illustrations will be drawn from data sciences and machine learning. The relationship between values and organizations is under-studied by philosophers of science, and the framework developed in this presentation can provide a starting point for further research into organizational levers for the management of values in science and technology.
Presenters
JB
Justin Biddle
Presenter, Georgia Institute Of Technology
Institutions and the Division of Ethical Labor in ScienceView Abstract
Symposium 09:00 AM - 11:45 AM (America/New_York) 2022/11/12 14:00:00 UTC - 2022/11/12 16:45:00 UTC
Current institutional structures for ethics in science focus on oversight—gatekeeping or regulatory compliance. These structures ensure scientists make the ethical decisions deemed appropriate and sanction scientists who do not, and are viewed as external to the research agendas scientists choose to pursue, and as impediments to research that must be overcome to get on with doing science. Senses of societal responsibility have shifted in the 21st century, and it is imperative to craft institutions to meet the full scope of responsibilities, while bringing the work into the heart of science.
Presenters
HD
Heather Douglas
Presenter, Michigan State University
Pandemic Science and Commercial Values: An Institutional Account for Values in ScienceView Abstract
Symposium 09:00 AM - 11:45 AM (America/New_York) 2022/11/12 14:00:00 UTC - 2022/11/12 16:45:00 UTC
Acknowledging that scientific research today is mainly conducted in the private sphere with commercial interests (or values) in mind, becomes crucial for understanding the roles of values in science today, as well as to imagining ways of counteracting some of the undesirable influence of such values. In the contribution to this symposium, I continue to argue in this direction, showing how different institutional frameworks (i.e., funding, regulatory, political, and academic institutions) tend to promote, primarily, commercial and private interests, even in situations with high social stakes.
Presenters
MF
Manuela Fernández Pinto
Presenter, Universidad De Los Andes
A Taxonomy for Studying How Institutions Shape Values in ScienceView Abstract
Symposium 09:00 AM - 11:45 AM (America/New_York) 2022/11/12 14:00:00 UTC - 2022/11/12 16:45:00 UTC
Most previous scholarship on the topic of values in science has focused on individuals. The time is now ripe to study how values permeate science through institutional systems. In order to move this scholarship forward, the present paper develops a taxonomy of major ways in which institutional systems can shape the influences of values on scientific practice. To do so, it examines a case study involving debates about the clinical practice guidelines for preventing and treating Lyme disease. Future research efforts can use this taxonomy as a guide for exploring values in science at an institutional level.
Presenters
KE
Kevin Elliott
Michigan State University
Michigan State University
Presenter
,
Georgia Institute of Technology
Presenter
,
Michigan State University
Presenter
,
Universidad de los Andes
University of Cincinnati
Dr. Matthew Brown
PSA Cognate Societies Chair
,
Southern Illinois University
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